S handong is also one of the origins of Chinese ceramics and silk. There appear a great number of prominent persons influential to the Chinese culture in the history of Shandong. Confucianism by the great ideologist, educationist and politician Confucius (551-479 B.C.) is the backbone of Chinese culture. The Master Sun’s Art of War written by famous militarist Sun Wu (551-479 B.C.) in ancient China is now a classic appreciated by military and business circles at home and abroad.
T hese extraordinary persons also include Mencius, Mo-tse, Xuncius, Zhuang Zhou, Guan Zhong, Wang Hsi-Chih, Lu Ban, Jia Sixie, Bian Que, Sun Bin, Zhuge Liang, Dongfang Shuo, Kong Rong, Liu Xie, Li Qingzhao, Xin Qiji, Pu Songling, Kong Shangren and so on. Their thinking, theories, wisdom and academic achievements constitute major parts of traditional Chinese culture and have imposed a profound and intensive influence on the development of Chinese culture.