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SHANDONG
山東

S handong Province is abbreviated as “Lu”, and its name refers to the province’s location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. The province is located on the eastern coastal areas of China and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and borders the Yellow Sea to the east, and the Bohai Sea to the north. The whole province consists of Shandong Peninsula and the inland. Shandong has a population of over 94 million and spans an area of 157,000 km2. Read More Below.


OVERVIEW

S handong Province is abbreviated as “Lu”, and its name refers to the province’s location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. The province is located on the eastern coastal areas of China and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and borders the Yellow Sea to the east, and the Bohai Sea to the north. The whole province consists of Shandong Peninsula and the inland. Shandong has a population of over 94 million and spans an area of 157,000 km2. As the main origin of Eastern Yi culture (the culture created by Eastern Yi people in pre-Qin period), Shandong is also the birthplace of Qi & Lu culture.

I ts time-honored history and culture as well as the abundant and magnificent mountains, rivers and lakes have cultivated generations of saints and numerous prominent personages. The history of Shandong can be traced back to 400,000 or 500,000 years ago when the earliest Shandong people – “Yiyuan People” lived. The Beixin culture (5300-4100 B.C.) developed 7000 years ago was earlier than the Neolithic Age (4500 and 2000 B.C.) in Tengxian. And the world famous Dawenkou culture and Longshan culture in the end of the primitive society were also first discovered in Shandong, so were the earliest Chinese character “inscription on pottery of Dawenkou” and “terracotta characters of Longshan”, as well as the earliest city-state “Chengziya Ruins in Longshan Ancient City” , the earliest Chinese military defense project “Great Wall of Qi (1046 -221 B.C.)” and Luozhuang Han Dynasty Tombs” (206 B.C.-220 A.D.) listed as “10 Most Important Archaeological Discoveries” of China in 2000, etc.

S handong is also one of the origins of Chinese ceramics and silk. There appear a great number of prominent persons influential to the Chinese culture in the history of Shandong. Confucianism by the great ideologist, educationist and politician Confucius (551-479 B.C.) is the backbone of Chinese culture. The Master Sun’s Art of War written by famous militarist Sun Wu (551-479 B.C.) in ancient China is now a classic appreciated by military and business circles at home and abroad.

T hese extraordinary persons also include Mencius, Mo-tse, Xuncius, Zhuang Zhou, Guan Zhong, Wang Hsi-Chih, Lu Ban, Jia Sixie, Bian Que, Sun Bin, Zhuge Liang, Dongfang Shuo, Kong Rong, Liu Xie, Li Qingzhao, Xin Qiji, Pu Songling, Kong Shangren and so on. Their thinking, theories, wisdom and academic achievements constitute major parts of traditional Chinese culture and have imposed a profound and intensive influence on the development of Chinese culture.

GEOGRAPHY

GEOGRAPHY

S handong is a coastal province in East China, in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the center-north section of Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. From north to south, it borders Hebei Province, Henan Province, Anhui Province and Jiangsu Province. The middle of the province is high, with Mount Tai being the most prominent. The east of the province is Shandong Peninsula extending into the Yellow Sea; it faces Liaodong Peninsula across Bohai Sea, adjoins South Korea and Japan, faces Korean Peninsula across the Yellow Sea, borders vast Yellow Sea to the southeast, and faces East China Sea and archipelago in the south of Japan in the distance.

OVERVIEWCLIMATE

CLIMATE

S handong belongs to the zone of the continental monsoon climate, hence the whole province is warm and moist, and hydrothermal conditions are superior to that of the inland regions of the same longitude. The climate features dry and windy spring, hot and rainy summer, clear and crisp autumn and dry and cold winter. Shandong is rich in sunshine and of unbalanced seasonal rainfall. In summer, the rain accompanies the heat, favorable to the agriculture.

GEOGRAPHYCULTURE

CULTURE

S handong is a coastal city in East China and has its name from the location to the east of Taihang Mountains. Simplified as “Lu”, Shandong with Jinan as the provincial capital is in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the mid-north of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. Shandong has a long history and played a major role in the creation and development of Chinese civilization. In the 11th century B.C., King Wu of Zhou (1087-1043) overthrew Shang Dynasty under the reign of King Zhou and established the Zhou Dynasty. King Wu awarded the State of Qi to the meritorious Master Keung and “Lu” to his younger brother Duke of Zhou.

T he State of Qi made Linzi the capital which integrated the “Eastern Yi Culture” and the state was flourishing then under the guidance as “follow the customs, simplify the rites” and “choose those of virtue and ability and worship merits and virtues”, besides, the industrial and commercial industries as well as the textile industry were also quite developed, hence Qi enjoys the reputation of “Clothes of Qi lead the trend of the world”. Inheriting the rituals of Zhou Dynasty, the State of Lu chose Qufu as the capital and was praised as “the state of ceremonies” appreciating “kindheartedness and justice, tradition and ethics”. Therefore, Shandong is also nicknamed as “land of ‘Qi’ and ‘Lu’”, and the traditional Chinese culture has also felt the decisive influence of the famous culture of Qi and Lu.

P eople always conclude the culture of Qi and Lu as “one mountain, one spring and one saint”, of which, the mountain refers to Mount Tai, the most revered of the Five Mountains, and the “spring” means the Baotu Spring hailed as “The Best Spring in the World”, while the saint refers to Confucius, the founder of Confucianism.

CLIMATETOURIST SEASON

TOURIST SEASON

B ased on the weather condition of Shandong, it is clear that other three seasons (from April to November) except winter with low temperature are the best time for travel. Travelling in Shandong in spring In April, Yantai is full of pear flowers covering the field like light smoke and white snow. Walk with your lover between pear flowers and wander under pear trees. Isn’t it beautiful? In May, all the flowers are blooming, filling Yantai with bright colors and refreshing fragrance of flowers. In May, it is a rainy season on Mount Tai, but you can often see the wonder of sea of clouds on the mountain. After the sun shines again after rain, you can see the magnificent view of sea of clouds under the feet on the moutain top; sunrise and sunset are so beautiful, making Mount Tai like a fairyland on earth. when the night falls, sunset looks more attractive than sunrise on mountain top. Travelling in Shandong in summer In late August, seawater is warm. It is the golden season for seaside tour. In Qingdao, winding Jiaodong Bay, rolling mountains, blue sea and Europen-style city scenery constitute a colorful picture. The annual Qingdao Beer Festival is the one not to be missed. In Yantai, refreshing bathing beach, fresh and delicious seafood and the wonder of mirage make people too delighted to leave. As to the hometown of Confucius and Mencius, it is waiting for your arrival with its solemnness in whatever season.

CULTURE