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HUBEI
湖北

H ubei, “E” for short, is also named “the Province of Thousands of Lakes”. Hubei is located in the middle part of China, middle reaches of Changjiang River, and north of Dongting Lake, so it gets its name. Hubei is adjacent to Henan in the north, connected with Anhui in the east, near Jiangxi and Hunan in the southeast and south, connected with Chongqing in the west, and near Shaanxi in the northwest. Read More Below.


OVERVIEW

H ubei, “E” for short, is also named “the Province of Thousands of Lakes”. Hubei is located in the middle part of China, middle reaches of Changjiang River, and north of Dongting Lake, so it gets its name. Hubei is adjacent to Henan in the north, connected with Anhui in the east, near Jiangxi and Hunan in the southeast and south, connected with Chongqing in the west, and near Shaanxi in the northwest. Surrounded by mountains in the east, west, and north, Hubei has lowland in the middle area. Hubei Province is a province with a long history. Ancient human fossils found in Yunxi, Yunxian, and Changyang prove the existence of human beings in hundreds of thousands of years before.

T he eggshell colored pottery discovered in Qujialing of Jingshan County has a history of more than 4000 years. According to the literature, within the territory of Hubei Province, there were countries including Chu (Jingshan of Nanzhang County), Lu (Xiangfan), Peng (Fang County), and Yong (Zhushan) in Shang Dynasty. During the Spring and Autumn Warring States Period, Chu was the country with the largest territory in Hubei Province. King Zhuang of Chu once became the powerful chief prince of central plain, and was named 5 powerful princes together with Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Wen of Jin, Duke Mu of Qin, and Duke Xiang of Song. In Warring States Period, Chu became more powerful and was named Seven Powers in the Warring State Period together with Qi, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei, and Qin. After Qin unified the whole China, China was divided into 46 prefectures, subordinated to which were counties.

T he name of Chu was the same as the name for the respected First Emperor of Qin’s father. Thus, Chu was renamed as Jing of Jingshan (currently Nanzhang). Later, Hubei was often named as Jing. Sometimes, Hubei was named Jingchu. In the Western Han Dynasty, Emperor Wu divided China into 13 states. The main part of Hubei belonged to Jingzhou. From Three Kingdoms Period to the unification of China in the Western Jin Dynasty, most regions within the territory of Hubei were also subordinated to Jingzhou. At the beginning of Northern Song Dynasty, Jinghubei Road was constructed from the north of Dongting Lake to Jingshan, including Yuan River and Li River, which was named Hubei Road for short. Since then, the name, Hubei, came into use. In Yuan Dynasty, the southeast part of Hubei, Hunan, and Guangxi were divided as Huguang Province, consisting of states such as Xiangyang, Huangzhou, Qizhou, Xingguo, Xiazhou, Wuchang, Jiangling (Zhongxing) and prefectures such as De’an, Mianyang, and Anlu.

I n Ming Dynasty, Zhongshu Province was changed into Chengxuanbuzhengshisi. In the 3rd year of the reign of Kangxi in Qing Dynasty (1664), Huguang Province was divided as Zuoyoubuzhengshisi. In the 6th year of the reign of Kangxi (1776), Huguangzuosi was renamed as Hubei Province. It was the first time that the name of Hubei Province was determined in history, and the name was used till now. Hubei has abundant tourist resources including famous mountains, famous water, cultural relics and historical sites. According to the general survey, the whole province has 1500 tourism landscapes (scenic spots). National key scenic spots include: East Lake in Wuhan, Wudang Mountain in Shiyan, Dahong Maintain in Suizhou, Longzhong in Xiangfan, and Jiugongshan in Xianning. Furthermore, grand Three Gorges of Changjiang River is well-known in the world. Famous Taoist mountain, Wudang Mountain, is hailed as the first mountain for its 72 peaks to the top peak and constantly flowing 24 gullies.

W udang Mountain is the holy land of Taoism. Shennongjia, the Ridge of Central China and Green Treasury, and is the important natural reserve, in which there are many precious animals and attractive “Puzzle of Wild Man”. Cultural tourism landscapes in Hubei Province are featured by long era span and high historical value. There are Ancient People Changyang Site, Qujialing Cultural Site, numerous Three Kingdoms scenic spots, Capital of Chu Jinancheng, Revolution of 1911 Site Qiyi Gate, Yuemachang, Central National Institute of Peasant Movement Site, and 87 Meeting Site.

C ultural relics and revolution sites spread all over the province. Many key historical events in Chinese history can be known from Yandi Temple in Suizhou, Zigui Quyuan Home Village, Jinan Old City, Zhaojun Home Village, Ancient Lute Platform and Yellow Crane Tower in Wuhan, Red Cliff of Three Kingdoms, Old Site of Wuhan Insurrectionary Army Government, Jinghan Railway Labor Movement “27” Memorial Hall. Jiangling and Xiangfan in this city are famous historic and cultural cities in China.

GEOGRAPHY

GEOGRAPHY

H ubei is located in the Mid-South Region of China, and the middle reaches of Yangtze Rive which is the biggest river in China. Hubei Province is connected with Anhui Province in the east, adjacent to Jiangxi Province in the southeast, near Hunan Province in the south, connected with Chongqing Province in the west, borders on Shaanxi Province in the northwest, and is connected with Henan Province in the north. It is named as Hubei because of its location in north of Dongting Lake.

OVERVIEWCLIMATE

CLIMATE

H ubei belongs to subtropical monsoon climate, with the feature of transiting from subtropical zone to warm temperate zone. The winter is cold and moist, and the summer is hot. There are sufficient sunshine, abundant heat, long frost-free period, sufficient rainfall, simultaneous rain and heat. The annual average temperature of the whole province is 15℃ to 17℃. The average temperature in July is 27℃ to 29℃. The highest temperature of Jianghan Plain is more than 40℃. Hubei is named as the “Stove”. Annual precipitation of 800 mm to 1,600 mm. Influenced by the landform, places including southern Great Shennongjia are the rainy centers of the whole province. Jianghan Plain usually suffers the flood disaster in the year with long Meiyu period. The temperature difference in the mountainous area of north Hubei is great. The annual average temperature is 15℃ to 22℃.

GEOGRAPHYCULTURE

CULTURE

H ubei is the province developed early in Chinese history. The discovery of Qujialing Ancient Cultural Relic in Jingshan County of Hubei Province proves ceramics production and rice planting appeared here in about 4000 or 5000 years ago. In addition, Jinancheng in current Jingzhou of Hubei Province is the site of Yingdu of Chu from the Warring States Period. In addition, the capital is located here for 411 years. Thus, Hubei is the central area of Chu Culture in Changjiang River Basin of China.

L ocal culture of Hubei Province combines advantages of all places and integrates the essence of traditional Chu Culture. Due to long cultural history, various local art forms with abundant Chu Culture tradition is created and expressed. Traditional operas, talking and singing, and song and dance are the main types.

CLIMATETOURIST SEASON

TOURIST SEASON

S pring and Autumn are best seasons for travel in Hubei Province. 1. Wuhan: Wuhan is named as the “Stove”. There are 22 hot days with highest temperature over 35℃ in a year. The relative humidity is over 70% at this time. The weather is muggy. Wuhan is one of Chinese hot centers in summer. The summer in Wuhan is hot, with very little temperature difference in dog days. Tourists had better not travel in Wuhan during the high-temperature period. Autumn is the best season for travel in Wuhan. 2. April and May are the best season to travel to Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture. It has a monsoon mountain climate. The summer is not hot. The winter is not cold. Fog is frequent and rainfall is sufficient. Due to complex landform, the altitude difference is great. The average altitude of Enshi Prefecture is about 1,000 m. The highest altitude is more than 3,000 m, and the lowest altitude is more than 60 m. The temperature decreases when the altitude increases. The annual average temperature of the regions with altitude between 300 m and 1,800 m is from 17.4℃ to 7.8℃. The temperature of the regions in Yangtze River Valley with the altitude below 300 m is more than 18℃, while the temperature of the alpine regions with altitude over 1,800 m is below 7.8℃. The vertical difference is obvious. January is the coldest month and July is the hottest month of a year. Although the spring and the autumn are best seasons for travel in Hubei, the temperature difference is great. Especially, the climate in Wudang Mountain and Shennongjia Mountain are not steady. The phenomenon of sunrise in the east and rain in the west is frequent. Please take with the clothing (thick coat) and rain gear. In addition, the smoker must pay attention to fireproofing and environmental protection. Please do not travel in Hubei during hot summer. Especially, July and August are the hottest months.

CULTURE