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HENAN
河南

H enan Province, “Yu” for short, is located in the central part of China. It was called Central Plains in ancient times. It is located in central and eastern part of China, and in the middle and lower reaches of Yellow River with Zhengzhou as its provincial capital. As the most part of the province lies south of the middle and lower reaches of Yellow River in history, it is called Henan (meaning: south of river). Henan boasts advantageous geographical location, with Shandong and Anhui to the east, Hebei and Shanxi to the north, Shaanxi to the west and Hubei to the south, linking the east to the west and the south to the north. Read More Below.


OVERVIEW

H enan Province, “Yu” for short, is located in the central part of China. It was called Central Plains in ancient times. It is located in central and eastern part of China, and in the middle and lower reaches of Yellow River with Zhengzhou as its provincial capital. As the most part of the province lies south of the middle and lower reaches of Yellow River in history, it is called Henan (meaning: south of river). Henan boasts advantageous geographical location, with Shandong and Anhui to the east, Hebei and Shanxi to the north, Shaanxi to the west and Hubei to the south, linking the east to the west and the south to the north.

H enan is the main birthplace of Chinese civilization and the center of Chinese history and culture, and remains China’s political, economic, cultural and transportation center for 5,000 years. Here located are four of the world-famous Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, namely, Luoyang, Kaifeng, Anyang and Zhengzhou, hence the province with the most ancient capitals of China. Such cultures as Central Plains culture, Heluo culture, Root-seeking culture, “Three Commerce” culture (commerce, merchants and commodities), sage culture, martial art culture and Wanshang culture, Chinese character culture, surname culture, poetry culture, etiquette culture and Chinese opera culture have a long and profound history; it is the birthplace of such thoughts as Taoist School, Mohist School, Legalist School and School of Logicians.

I n the ancient times, there were numerous rivers, dense forests and many wild elephants in the middle and lower reaches of Yellow River, and Henan was vividly described as a place where people led elephants, so this is the origin of the pictographic character Yu and the abbreviation Yu. In Shangshu Yugong, China is divided into “nine states”, and Yu State was in the middle of such nine states, so Henan is also referred to as Central Plains or Zhongzhou. Henan has 3 world cultural heritage sites: Longmen Grottoes, Yin Dynasty Ruins and “Tiandizhizhong” historic architectural complex;

11 National 5A Level Scenic Spots of 8 types: Shaolin Temple, Longmen Grottoes, Mount Yuntai – Qingtian River – Shennong Mountain, Millennium City Park, Yin Dynasty Ruins, Baiyun Mountain, Mount Yao – Spring Temple Buddha, and Laojun Mountain – Jiguan Cave; 4 world geo-parks: the “Central Great Mountain” Mount Song, Mount Yuntai, Mount Wangwu, Mount Daimei, and Funiu Mountain; and 15 national key scenic spots: Mount Song, Longmen Grottoes, Mount Jigong, Mount Wangwu, Mount Yuntai, Mount Yao, Mount Linlv, Qingtian River, Shennong Mountain, Mount Tongbai – Huaiyuan, and Zhengzhou Yellow River Scenic Area.

GEOGRAPHY

GEOGRAPHY

H enan is located in the central and eastern China at 31°23’N-36°22’N and 110°21’E-116°39’E. It is situated at the joining part of coastal regions and central and western regions, with Shandong Province and Anhui Province to the east, Hubei Province to the south, Shaanxi Province to the west, and Shanxi Province and Hebei Province to the north, linking the east to the west and connecting the south to the north.

T he terrain is that the west is higher than the east. The north, west and south of Taihang Mountains, Funiu Mountains, Tongbai Mountains and Dabie Mountains form semicircular distribution along the province; the middle and east of the province are the south of North China Plain; the southwest is Nanyang Basin, crossing four river systems- Yellow River, Huaihe River, Haihe River and Yangtze River, and connecting mountains and rivers.

OVERVIEWCLIMATE

CLIMATE

H enan has four distinct seasons with a temperate – subtropical and humid – semi-humid monsoon climate. Generally, it is characterized that it is chilly and less rain and snow in winter; dry and lots of wind and sand in spring; hot and abundant rain in summer; fine and sufficient sunshine in autumn. Annual average temperature is generally 12℃-16℃. In January, the temperature is -3℃ – 3℃. In July, the temperature is 24℃ – 29℃. The overall temperature in the east is higher than that of in the west, and it is higher in the south than that of in the north. Significant temperature difference exists between mountainous areas and plains.

GEOGRAPHYCULTURE

CULTURE

H enan is the most important birthplace of Chinese civilization and Chinese nation. As early as over 4,000 years ago, Henan, called Yu State then, was the center of nine states of China, so its abbreviation is named after Yu State. It was also referred to as Zhongzhou, Central Plains or Zhongtu. As the main place of residence of Chinese nation in early period, Henan served as the political, economic and cultural center here for a long time. Since the first dynasty of China – Xia Dynasty, made the capital in Henan, over 20 dynasties had made their capitals here. Thus, there is a saying that “the history of Henan Province constitutes half of the Chinese history”.

A mong the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, four, namely Zhengzhou – an ancient capital of Xia Dynasty, Shang Dynasty, State of Guan, State of Zheng and State of Han, Anyang – a business capital, Luoyang – an ancient capital of thirteen dynasties, and Kaifeng – an ancient capital of seven dynasties, are located in Henan. But Henan is also one of places suffering from wars and the most severe natural disasters in Chinese history. A lot of Henan people escaped to other places many times in order to avoid disasters, which has played a very important role in the development of many other regions of China and the spread of Chinese civilization.

CLIMATETOURIST SEASON

TOURIST SEASON

I n summer and winter, the temperature and humidity are relatively not very good in Henan Province. In spring, weather is pleasant and numerous flowers blossom. In autumn, the sky is clear and weather is fine with light wind and thin clouds. Thus, spring and autumn are considered to be the best time for travelling in Henan. 1. Spring: Trees are green and flowers contend in blooming, producing a colorful scenery. In this season, Henan has the unique scenery. But the annualpeony show is most worth a visit. In the sea ofpeony flowers, you’ll be fascinated with the charming fragrance. 2. Autumn: The sky is clear and weather is fine in golden autumn. You can climb the Mount Song or go to the holy place of Buddhism- Longmen Grottoes to know long history and profound culture of China, which will bring a different kind of fun. Here you can let everything go and get close to the nature, relaxing yourself to your heart’s content.

CULTURE