G uangdong is also called “Yue” for short. As a coastal province located at the southern end of mainland China, Guangdong lies to the south of the Nan Mountains, borders on the South China Sea to the south, shares borders with Hong Kong, Macao, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Fujian, and faces Hainan across the sea. Guangdong has abundant land and water resources, and is located in a region along the Pearl River that is referred to as the Pearl River Delta, which has long been known as a “Land of Rice and Fish” in southern China and ranks among a few regions in the world that hold some of the largest metropolises in the world. The unique culture typical of the region south of the Five Ridges (Lingnan for short) runs deep in all aspects of life, including language, custom, and history, in Guangdong, and differs significantly from the culture of northern China. In Guangdong there are 3 major population groups, which number over 100 million, including over 1 million foreigners. Its economic output accounts for one-eighth of the national total, surpassing that of Singapore, Taiwan, or Hong Kong. As the largest Chinese province in terms of economical output, Guangdong has already developed into the province with the largest population, the largest economic scale, the greatest comprehensive economic strength, the greatest financial strength, and the most open culture. Guangdong dates back to ancient times.