The glorious history of Chinese literature is reflected in the Book of Songs, Songs of Chu, Poetry of Han Dynasty, Book of Jin, Poetry of Tang Dynasty, Song Poems, Verse of Yuan, traditional Chinese novels with a couplet title of Ming and Qing dynasty, and essays of the Republic of China since the pre-Qin period. China has colorful folk cultures. Traditional artistic forms include poetry, traditional Chinese operas, calligraphies, and traditional Chinese paintings.
Bone flute, which firstly appeared in the Neolithic Age in China, is the earliest wind instrument known to the world. Chinese traditional music is generated and developed from the integration and communication of Central China music, four regions music and foreign music, including folk music, scholar music, religious music, and court music. Chinese traditional music has distinct characteristics. Common instruments are Guzheng, Qin, and Xiao. The temperament is based on five notes of the pentatonic scale, corresponding roughly to do, re, mi, sol, la.
The time-honored traditional Chinese dance reflects traditional Chinese culture and aesthetics. In addition, it is closely related to martial art, acrobatics, and traditional Chinese opera.
Traditional Chinese opera is a traditional Chinese stage art, consisting of various performance means including: singing, speaking, acting and acrobatic fighting. Traditional Chinese opera includes many types of dramas such as Beijing Opera, Henan Opera, Hebei Clapper Opera, Shaanxi Opera, Pingju, Cantonese Opera, Shaoxing Opera, Kunqu Opera, Huangmei Opera, Chaozhou Opera, Jin Opera, and Flower Drum Opera.
Chinese painting is called Guohua in China. Writing brush, soft brush or fingers are mainly used to paint on silk or Xuan paper by ink and traditional Chinese painting color. Chinese paintings can be divided into bird-and-flower painting, mountains-and-waters painting and figure painting according to the content, elaborate-style painting, freehand brush painting, heavy-color painting, ink and wash painting, line drawing painting in traditional ink and brush style, mural painting, and inner painting according to skills, concrete Chinese painting and abstract Chinese painting according to artistic levels. Chinese painting, good at freehand brushwork, emphasizes similarity in spirit, instead of similarity in form; emphasizes observation and summarization, instead of on-site facsimile; uses cavalier perspective, instead of focus perspective; emphasizes artistic conception, instead of scene.
China is one of the ancient civilizations. Ancient China had technological traditions different from western countries. Ancient China contributed to the world by means of numerous inventions and innovations and developed unique advancing achievements in various fields such as astronomy, math, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, ceramic, spinning and architecture. Some Chinese inventions anterior to other countries include: the four great inventions (papermaking technology, printing, compass and gunpowder), seismograph, abacus, steel, umbrella (for current use, which can be opened and closed), toothbrush, stirrup, silk, rudder, porcelain, petroleum well, paper money, match, lacquer, kite, fire balloon, fishing pole, fan, crossbow, dock, mangonel and Chinese bronze ware. Among which, silk, porcelain and tea were once the main export goods in China. For example, the Silk Road was constructed for the transportation of silk. The porcelain is also called china in English.
In modern society, China learned from western civilization and constantly developed scientific research. Successful launch of the Shenzhou spaceships symbolizes that China has become the third country that is able to send mankind into the space besides the former Soviet Union and America.