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N anjing, simplified as “Ning”, has another name Jinling. With a history of over 2,500 years as a city and nearly a history of 500 years as a capital, it is one of the 4 major ancient capitals in China, enjoying the titles “Ancient Capital for Six Dynasties” and “Capital City for Ten Dynasties”. Read More Below.


N anjing, simplified as “Ning”, has another name Jinling. With a history of over 2,500 years as a city and nearly a history of 500 years as a capital, it is one of the 4 major ancient capitals in China, enjoying the titles “Ancient Capital for Six Dynasties” and “Capital City for Ten Dynasties”. It has long been the political and cultural center of south China. With profound culture and rich historical sites, it is among the first batch of the historically and culturally renowned cities in China and the national key landscape tourism cities.

T he Father of China Sun Yat-sen once appraised Nanjing as: Nanjing enjoys advantageous position since it integrated mountains, lakes and plains. It was built into a capital prior to Beijing. It is hardly to find another city like Nanjing. In the history, Nanjing not only benefited from its well-received geographic location and excellent environment, but also suffered from disasters brought on by wars. However, it has always gotten out of the rubbles and wilderness and restored its prosperity. In addition, when the Central Plain was occupied by the alien nations and the Han nationality was about to suffer the total extinction, they usually chose Nanjing as the place to rehabilitate, determined to launch northern expedition and restore China. The two northern expeditions in Ming Dynasty and the Republic of China succeeded while three ones in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Kingdom of Liang and Kingdom of Song in the Northern and Southern dynasties suffered defeat on the verge of victory.

I n the early years of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279), all the ministers suggested that Jiankang (the current Nanjing) should be founded as the capital city so as to show the resolution of restoring the Central Plain. However, Emperor Gaozong of Southern Song Dynasty had no intention for the northern expedition and chose Hangzhou as the capital city. Jinling was also taken as the supplementary capital under public pressure. Even the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom founded Nanjing as the capital, taking the expelling the alien governance as its mobilization base and legitimacy. Therefore, Nanjing is regarded as the rejuvenation place of Han nationality, enjoying special status and value in Chinese history. After comparing the 4 major ancient capitals, Mr. Zhu Xie concluded that “among the 4 capitals, Jinling is the best in such aspects as the prosperous literature, outstanding talents, delicately beautiful mountains, grand momentum as well as the close relationship with the whole nation.”

T he ancient Qinhuai River of Nanjing is curved and extended like a jade belt. Standing on the bridge, visitors can possibly see the history flowing like the water. As quiet as a virgin girl, the Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are situated on both sides, which seemed to pour out their heart; the winding Zhongshan Mountain and Qixia Mountain continued their guard like dragons for thousands of years. The ancient Jinling city stood silently and the vicissitudes and prosperity engraved its annual rings. The cultural relics and historical sites can be found everywhere in Nanjing, from which one can explore the resources of the history: built based on mountains, Dr. Sun Yat-Sen’s Mausoleum with complete structure could inspire the spirit of fearlessness of tourists.

W ith academic flavor of antique beauty, the architecture group of Fuzimiao (Confucius Temple) can provide the tourists with the experience of prosperity of the marketplace in Ming and Qing dynasties when pondering in it; standing in the city of thick barriers and watching the crafty-designed Zhonghua Gate with magnificent momentum, one can even hear the neigh of war horses.



N anjing is a city directly under the jurisdiction of Jiangsu Province, and the capital of Jiangsu Province. It is located at the border between Jiangsu Province and Anhui Province in the east of plains in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and is in the southwest of Jiangsu Province. It’s located in 31°14′-32°37′N and 118°22′-119°14′E. It borders Zhenjiang City to the east, Maanshan City and Wuhu City of Anhui Province to the west, Xuanzhou City of Anhui Province to the south, and Yangzhou City to the north, along the banks of the Yangtze River.

W ith the maximum longitudinal distance of over 140 km north-south and maximum horizontal distance of over 80 km west-east, it covers a total area of 6,516 km2, and it administers 10 districts and 5 counties.



N anjing has a typical northern subtropical monsoon climate. Though it is only 300 km away from the Pacific Ocean, its oceanic climate feature is not quite obvious. Affected by the shifted influence of winter and summer winds, Nanjing has 4 distinct seasons with relatively huge temperature difference throughout the year. Nanjing has plenty of rainfall, with the average rainfall of 117 days annually and annually average precipitation of 1,106.5 mm. With long winter and summer while short spring and autumn, downtown Nanjing enters into spring around March 26, into summer around May 26, into autumn around September 16 and into winter around November 16. Mostly controlled by the Siberia High Pressure or Mongolian High Pressure in winter, Nanjing is affected by northeast wind with the extreme lowest temperature of -17.9℃ and the extreme lowest temperature in downtown of -14.0 ℃. The summer of Nanjing is obviously divided into the rainy days in the early summer and the hottest days in midsummer. The plum rainy season lasts from June 20 to July 10, during which the rainfalls are abundant, together with heavy rain, large humidity, low pressure, and less sunshine. After the plum rainy season, the midsummer starts which is mostly controlled by the subtropical high pressure of the Pacific Ocean, with sunny weather, high temperature, less rainfalls. The southerly wind prevails with the extreme highest temperature of 41.6℃ and the extreme highest temperature in downtown of 40.7℃. It was referred to as one of the “Three Furnace-like Cities” with Chongqing and Wuhan.



F or thousands of years, the flowing Yangtze River not only cultivates the civilization of the Yangtze River drainage basin, but also promotes the development of Nanjing, a beautiful ancient city in Jiangnan. Surrounded by mountains and rivers, Nanjing has magnificent hills and numerous historic relics, with the dragon-like Zhongshan Mountain curling and the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouching. Mr. Zhu Ziqing, a famous literati and scholar, once wrote down his appraisal in Nanjing after visiting the city in 1930s:

Touring in Nanjing is like paying a visit to an antique store, and the eroding trace of time can be found anywhere. One can appreciate, can ponder on the past while lost in his wild thought leisurely.” There is an old saying “Most of the fortune under the heaven comes from southeast, with Jinling as the center.” As the capital for 10 dynasties, Nanjing, featured by the grandeur of a large city with profound culture, is located in southeast China, where both the clothes and cultural relics are quite flourishing. Meanwhile, as the cultural center of China, Nanjing has a so profound culture that even the vegetable growers and barkeepers shared some flavor of this capital of 6 dynasties.

T herefore, the Nanjing people has always kept the tradition of celebrating traditional Chinese festivals: the Spring Couplets or the pictures of Doorkeeper Gods will be put up on the door during the Spring Festival and some scholars will put on a picture of “rooster”, with the meaning of “roosters will bring luck to the year”. At present, “May you be happy and prosperous” is frequently used by the Nanjing people. In addition, tea, cigarettes and modern pastries are served for treating guests. At the night of the 15th day of the first lunar month, Nanjing people have kept the custom of “having noodles and appreciating lanterns on Lantern’s Festival”.

I n Ming and Qing dynasties, on the Lantern Festival, playing dragon lantern and hanging gauze lanterns prevailed. Meanwhile, the Nanjing people keep many traditions, such as going for an outing on the Pure-Brightness Festival, touring the Qinhuai River on the Dragon Boat Festival, “stealing” vegetables and fruits on Mid-Autumn Festival, hill hiking on the Double Ninth Day, porridge tasting on the 8th day of the twelfth lunar month, and offering sacrifices to the God of Fortune. The Yun Brocade of Nanjing, Shu Brocade of Chengdu, Song Brocade of Suzhou and Zhuang Brocade of Guangxi are called “Four Famous Brocades in China”, with the Yun Brocade topping the list. With a history of nearly 1,000 years, the Yun Brocade of Nanjing is the outstanding representative of the long and excellent traditional history, enjoying good reputation home and abroad for its bright color and beauty as the rosy clouds-shaped patterns.

B y integrating the techniques of brocade weaving for all generations, the Yun Brocade is reputed as the No. 1 among the Three Famous Brocades in ancient China. The Yun Brocade is manufactured by a wooden jacquard of Large Flower Pavilion with the length of 5.6 m, the height of 4 m and the width of 1.4 m, which was praised as “an inch of the Yun Brocade is worth an inch of gold.”



I t is very hot in summer. The surface temperature can reach over 50℃ when it is the hottest. Although green trees make shade everywhere, it is not suitable for travel in Nanjing in summer. It is the best to come to Nanjing in spring and autumn. The best travelling time in Nanjing is February and March when flowers bloom. Plum blossoms bloom the earliest, followed by peach blossoms, cherry blossoms, tulips, malus spectabilis and peony. In this period, Nanjing has pleasant weather and beautiful scenery, full of fragrance of flowers. In September and October, fragrant Osmanthus fragrans and maple leaves in autumn frost can be seen, and crabs of Gaochun District, and melons, fruits and aquatic food can be tasted.

S o you can enjoy the scenery and food here. In December, if you are lucky to see snow, it is quite fascinating. Snow in the regions south of the Yangtze River is charming and attractive. Tangshan hot springs will bring warmth to the cold winter. Various flower festivals are held in Nanjing based on seasons. Between February and April: China Nanjing International Plum Blossom Festival, Lishui Plum Blossom Festival, Cherry Blossom Festival, Tulip Festival, Malus Spectabilis Festival, Peony Festival, Yuhua Tea Festival. May: Water Melon Festival. August: Grape Festival. Between September and October: Crab Festival, Osmanthus Fragrans Festival, and Red Maple Art Festival, etc.